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Ephesus.

The findings obtained in this region where the native people, namely the Lelegs and the Carians have lived since the beginning, indicate that the city is dated back to 2000 years B.C. As far as the years of 1000 are concerned, it is assumed that the Ions came to this region, lead by Androckles. Ephesus was captured by the Kimmers (Cimmerians) in the 7th century B.C., by the Lydians in 560, and later in 546 B.C. by the Persians; and was rescued from the Persian domination when Alexander the Great defeated the Persians in 334 B.C.
ephesus

Lysimachos, a commander of Alexander’s, had the settlement removed from the whereabouts of the Temple of Artemis to the location between the Mount of Panayir and the Mount of Bülbül, and had a wall built around the city. The city was taken by the Kingdom of Pergamon after 190 B.C., by Rome in 133 B.C., and later by Byzantium. Ephesus maintained its importance during the period of Christianity; the apostle St. Paul arrived there during the years of 50 A.D., and St. John was buried on the hill of Ayasuluk (Selcuk, near Izmir) at the beginning of the 2nd century. Ephesus lived through its third glorious period during the reign of Justinian in the middle of the 6th century A.D. At this time, the Church of St. John was built by the Byzantine emperor.

The ruins of Ephesus, situated near Selçuk town at 70 kilometers (44 miles) south of Izmir, is a main center of archaeological interest owing to the ancient remains that still exist. When you enter through the Magnesia Gate (south gate or upper gate), you can see the State Agora (or Upper Agora). The Temple of Isis is situated at the center of the Agora, and Stoa is placed on the North side of it. The Odeion (Bouletarion or Parliament) with a capacity of 1,400 persons is placed behind it and the Prytaneion (Town Hall) where the sacred fire used to burn, is on its flank. The Baths of Varius are placed on the east side of Odeion. On the west of the Agora, the Monument of Memmius built in the 1st century BC., the fountain of Sextilius Pollio built in the year 93 A.D., and the Temple of Domitian (81-93 A.D) are placed. On the south of the Agora, the fountain of Laecanius Bassus is situated. The Curettes street starts downwards from the Temple of Memmius. The Gate of Heracles (Hercules) is placed on this avenue. After passing through this part, the fountain of Trajan built in the years 102-114 is seen on the right hand side and after this, the Temple of Hadrian appears in front of us, in all its splendid beauty (117-138 A.D). The Scholastica Baths, built in the 4th century A.D., are situated behind the Temple of Hadrian. The houses of the rich people of Ephesus which were in front of it, have been restored and opened for visits at present with special permits.

At the corner formed by the Curettes street and the Marble Road, the House of Love (Pornaion or Brothel) is placed and the Library of Celsus, restored and reestablished in recent years, stands right in front of this. The library which had been built in the name of proconsul Gaius Celsus completed in the year 135 A.D. by his son Tiberius Giulius Aquila, is entered by way of a stairway, 21 meters (69 feet) in width and having 9 steps. The southeastern gate of the Trade Agora opens to the Library of Celsus. Emperor Augustus’ slaves, Mazaeus and Mithridates, liberated by him had this gate built in the year 1st century A.D.; it comprises three sections and has been restored today. The Corinthian columns of the Stoa encircling the Trade Agora with the dimensions 110 x 110 meters (361 x 361 feet), are standing erect today. The Temple of Serapes built in the period of Antony (138-192 A.D.) is placed behind the Trade Agora.

One of the magnificent buildings of Ephesus is the Great Theater, largest in Asia Minor, which had a capacity of more than 24.000 people and is in a rather well preserved condition. The construction had started during the Hellenistic period but it could only be completed during the time of Trajan (98-117 A.D.). St. Paul was dragged into this theater to face the crowed because of his famous letter to Ephesians, but rescued by the security corps of the city. Festivals are celebrated in this theater today.

All the streets of Ephesus were illuminated at night with oil lamps, this shows us the richness of the city. The Port Avenue extends in front of the theater. The avenue is 11 meters (36 feet) wide and 600 meters (1970 feet) long, and it has been called Arcadian Street because it was renewed during the time of Arcadius. On the whole north side of the avenue, there are the Harbor Gymnasium, baths and the Theater Gymnasium. The avenue that passes along the front of the theater, extends towards the Stadium built during the Nero period (54-68 A.D.) and towards the Vedius Gymnasium. The Church of the Virgin Mary built at the beginning of the 4th century A.D. is situated behind the Port Gymnasium just before the exit from the lower gate (north gate). This was also the meeting place of the 3rd Ecumenical Council.

Arcadian Street

This street is situated between the Harbour Baths and the great theatre. Entering from the port, traders and s...

Bath of Varius

The ruins to the east of the Basilica belong to the bath of Varius, dating to the Roman period. The constructi...

Brothel

A peristyle house on the corner of Curetes Street and the Marble Road is known as the brothel, because in the ...

Celsus Library

This library is one of the most beautiful structures in Ephesus. It was built in 117 A.D. It was a monumental ...

Church Of Mary

This Roman building is dated to the 2nd century A.D as the ‘Hall of the Muses’. It was used as an educatio...

Commercial Agora

Being the most important trade center of Ephesus, Agora was built in the third century B.C in the Hellenistic ...

Curetes Street

It is one of the three main streets of Ephesus between The Hercules Gate till to the Celsus Library.This stree...

Domitian Square

Domitian Temple gave this area its name. It was the first temple to be built in the name of an emperor (81 –...

Early Christian Basilica

Basilica in the East Gymnasium. A church was built over the Hellenistic city wall to the east of the lecture h...

Fountain of Pollio

The Pollio Fountain was located to the south of the State Agora, across the Odeion. It was built in 97 A.D by ...

Fountain of Trajan

Built in around 104 C.E, it is one of the finest monuments in Ephesus. It was constructed for the honor of Emp...

Gate Of Mazeus

The gate with three passage ways at the right of the Celsus Library was built in 40 A.D by the slaves Mazeus a...

Hadrian’s Gate

Hadrian’s Gate is located at the junction of the Curetes Street and the Marble Street. The gate house has th...

Harbour Baths

The large bath-gymnasium complex north of the Arcadiane is planned symmetrically. It consists of three parts: ...

Harbour Gymnasium

There was a gymnasium in the middle part of the bath-gymnasium complex. Its ancient designation was probably G...

Heroon

Heroon was a 2C BC U-shaped building with an open Ionic upper story. Water ran through a channel in front of t...

Hydrekdocheion

On the southwest corner of the State Agora there are the remains of a fountain. According to an inscription th...

Latrines

They were part of the Scholastica Baths and built in the 1C AD. They were the public toilets of the city. Ther...

Magnesian Gate

There were three entrances to Ephesus; The Magnesian Gate (on the road the house of Mother Mary), the Koressos...

Marble Road

It is the road starting form the great theatre to the Celsus Library, which is the portion of the sacred way t...

Memmius Monument

This Monument is situated on the north side of the Domitian Square. It was constructed during the reign of Aug...

Odeon

This building has the shape of a small theatre with the stage building, seating places and the orchestra.It ha...

Prytaneion

Behind the basilica is the Prytaneion, where religious ceremonies , official receptions and banquets were held...

Roman Basilica

It is a typical Roman Basilica. It is 160 meters long, and located on the northern part of the state agora and...

St Luke’s Grave

Apostle or Evangelist Luke is the author of the Gospel of Luke, the companion of the Apostle Paul (Phil 1:24, ...

Stadium

The Stadium was located to the south of the Vedius Gymnasium. The spectators’ seats on the south was resting...

State Agora

The agora on the southern part of the Basilica is the State Agora, and was built in the Roman Period in the fi...

Temenos

There used to be two temples between the Prytaneum (town hall) and Odeon (Concert hall). They were Imperial Cu...

Temple of Domitian

Located to the south end of the Domitian Street, it is the first structure in Ephesus known to be dedicated to...

Temple of Hadrian

It is one of the best preserved and most beautiful structures on Curetes Street. It was built before 138 A.D b...

Temple of Isis

Ephesus throughout its history always had a large Egyptian population and Isis was a very importantEgyptian go...

Temple of Serapis

This temple was built for the Egyptian merchants. It was located on the Commercial Agora near the western gate...

Terrace Houses

Ephesus terrace houses are located on the hill, opposite the Hadrian Temple. Also called as “the houses of r...

The Baths of Scholastica

It was built in the First Century and restored in the Fourth Century by a rich Christian lady calledScholastic...

The Octagon

Octagon was a vaulted burial chamber placed on a rectangular base with the skeleton of a 15 or 16 year old wom...

Theatre

This is the most magnificent structure in Ephesus ancient city. The Great Theatre is located on the slope of P...

Theatre Gymnasium

The building is situated at the eastern end of the Arcadiane Street. It is one of the Ephesian bath-gymnasium ...

Vedius Gymnasium

It is easily seen when entering the Ephesus city from the south entrance. The construction of the gymnasium da...

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